Solution Acute Pyelonephritis: A 32-year-old female is seen in the urologist’s office because of a fever, chills, and generalized fatigue.

Case Study Scenario

A 32-year-old female is seen in the urologist’s office because of a fever, chills, and generalized fatigue. She also reported urgency, frequency, dysuria, and hematuria. In addition, she noticed that her urine was cloudy with a fishy odor. The physician ordered the following tests: a clean catch specimen for a U/A, a urine C&S, and a KUB. The U/A revealed pyuria, bacteriuria, and a slightly acidic pH. A common type of bacteria was grown in the culture. X-rays revealed acute pyelonephritis resulting from cystitis, which has spread up to the kidney from the bladder. The patient was placed on an antibiotic and encouraged to “push fluids” by drinking two liters of water a day.

Having Trouble Meeting Your Deadline?

Get your assignment on Solution Acute Pyelonephritis: A 32-year-old female is seen in the urologist’s office because of a fever, chills, and generalized fatigue. completed on time. avoid delay and – ORDER NOW

Acute Pyelonephritis Case Study Questions

This patient has two urinary system infections in different locations; name them. Which one caused the other and how? (3 points)

List and define each of the patient’s presenting symptoms (in bold) in your own words. (4 points)

What diagnostic tests did the urologist order? Describe them in your own words. (3 points)

  1. Explain the results of each diagnostic test in your own words. (3 points)
  2. What were the physician’s treatment instructions for this patient? Explain the purpose of each treatment. (3 points)
  3. Describe the normal appearance of urine.
  4. Textbook: Medical Terminology: A Living Language, 7e
  5. by Bonnie Fremgen and Suzanne Frucht
Acute Pyelonephritis


  • Czaja CA, Scholes D, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Population-based epidemiologic analysis of acute pyelonephritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 01;45(3):273-80. [PubMed]2.
  • Bethel J. Acute pyelonephritis: risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. Nurs Stand. 2012 Oct 3-9;27(5):51-6; quiz 58. [PubMed]3.
  • Chung VY, Tai CK, Fan CW, Tang CN. Severe acute pyelonephritis: a review of clinical outcome and risk factors for mortality. Hong Kong Med J. 2014 Aug;20(4):285-9. [PubMed]4.
  • Shields J, Maxwell AP. Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications. Practitioner. 2010 Apr;254(1728):19, 21, 23-4, 2. [PubMed]5.
  • Stone SC, Mallon WK, Childs JM, Docherty SD. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: clues to rapid diagnosis in the Emergency Department. J Emerg Med. 2005 Apr;28(3):315-319. [PubMed]6.
  • Stamm WE, Norrby SR. Urinary tract infections: disease panorama and challenges. J Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 01;183 Suppl 1:S1-4. [PubMed]
  • Nicolle LE. Epidemiology of urinary tract infection. Infect Med. 2001;18:153-162.
  • Foxman B, Klemstine KL, Brown PD. Acute pyelonephritis in US hospitals in 1997: hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13(2):144-150.
  • Nicolle LE, Friesen D, Harding GK, Roos LL. Hospitalization for acute pyelonephritis in Manitoba, Canada, during the period from 1989 to 1992; impact of diabetes, pregnancy, and aboriginal origin. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22(6):1051-1056.
  • Czaja CA, Scholes D, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Population-based epidemiologic analysis of acute pyelonephritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(3):273-280.
  • Scholes D, Hooton TM, Roberts PL, Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Stamm WE. Risk factors associated with acute pyelonephritis in healthy women. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142(1):20-27.
  • Zahar JR, Lortholary O, Martin C, Potel G, Plesiat P, Nordmann P. Addressing the challenge of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2009;10(2):172-180.
  • Oteo J, Pérez-Vázquez M, Campos J. Extended-spectrum [beta]-lactamase producing Escherichia coli: changing epidemiology and clinical impact. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23(4):320-326.
  • Rooney PJ, O’Leary MC, Loughrey AC, et al. Nursing homes as a reservoir of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64(3):635-641.
  • Rodríguez-Baño J, Alcalá JC, Cisneros JM, et al. Community infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coliArch Intern Med. 2008;168(17):1897-1902.
  • Foxman B. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections: incidence, morbidity, and economic costs. Dis Mon. 2003;49(2):53-70.
  • Nicolle LE. Complicated pyelonephritis: unresolved issues. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007;9(6):501-507.
  • Shoff WH, Green-McKenzie J, Edwards C, Behrman AJ, Shepherd SM. Acute pyelonephritis: the differential diagnosis and workup. March 5, 2010. Accessed January 17, 2011.
  • Michaeli J, Mogle P, Perlberg S, Heiman S, Caine M. Emphysematous pyelonephritis. J Urol. 1984;131(2):203-208.
  • Hynes NA. Johns Hopkins Medical Center Abx Guide. Acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. September 15, 2008. (subscription required). Accessed December 17, 2010.
  • Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: a 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(5):e103-e120.
  • Bradbury SM. Collection of urine specimens in general practice: to clean or not to clean?. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1988;38(313):363-365.
  • Immergut MA, Gilbert EC, Frensilli FJ, Goble M. The myth of the clean catch urine specimen. Urology. 1981;17(4):339-340.
  • Bray PA, Corry MF. Mid-stream urine collection: is preparatory cleansing essential?. N Z Nurs J. 1979;72(3):13-14.
  • Johnson JR, Lyons MF, Pearce W, et al. Therapy for women hospitalized with acute pyelonephritis: a randomized trial of ampicillin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days. J Infect Dis. 1991;163(2):325-330.
  • Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(1):41-50.
  • American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Acute pyelonephritis. Accessed December 17, 2010.
  • Mitterberger M, Pinggera GM, Colleselli D, et al. Acute pyelonephritis: comparison of diagnosis with computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. BJU Int. 2008;101(3):341-344.
  • Tanagho E. Radiography of urological infections. In: Tanagho EA, McAninch JW, eds. Smith’s General Urology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008.
  • van Nieuwkoop C, Hoppe BP, Bonten TN, et al. Predicting the need for radiologic imaging in adults with febrile urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(11):1266-1272.
  • Velasco M, Martínez JA, Moreno-Martínez A, et al. Blood cultures for women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis: are they necessary?. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(8):1127-1130.
  • Thanassi M. Utility of urine and blood cultures in pyelonephritis. Acad Emerg Med. 1997;4(8):797-800.
  • Otto G, Sandberg T, Marklund BI, Ulleryd P, Svanborg C. Virulence factors and pap genotype in Escherichia coli isolates from women with acute pyelonephritis, with or without bacteremia. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;17(3):448-456.
  • Finkelstein R, Kassis E, Reinhertz G, Gorenstein S, Herman P. Community-acquired urinary tract infection in adults: a hospital viewpoint. J Hosp Infect. 1998;38(3):193-202.
  • Wing DA, Hendershott CM, Debuque L, Millar LK. Outpatient treatment of acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy after 24 weeks. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94(5 pt 1):683-688.
  • Colgan R, Hyner S, Chu S. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adults. In: Grabe M, Bishop MC Bjerklund-Johansen TE, et al., eds. Guidelines on Urological Infections. Arnhem, The Netherlands: European Association of Urology (EAU); 2009:11–38.

Maximize your academic success with just one click! Discover the secret to exceptional grades and elevate your performance to unparalleled heights. Click now to access the ultimate solution to this Question

Explanation & Answer

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Order Now and we will direct you to our Order Page at Litessays. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.

Do you need an answer to this or any other questions?

Similar Posts