NURS 530 WCU Cardiogenic Shock And Vitamin D Deficiency Discussion


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Amber McCall 

Thank you for your post about burns and more.Please share the rule of nines. Please cite an include references 

Khrystene Nguyen

Cardiogenic Shock – Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening medical condition that is characterized by inadequate cardiac output, which leads to insufficient oxygen and nutrient delivery to organs and tissues (Rogers, 2022). Cardiogenic shock begins with a defect in the heart’s ability to pump blood. This can be caused by different factors, but the most common is myocardial infarction. Because of this impairment, the heart’s ability to contract and pump blood decreases which leads to a reduction in cardiac output. When cardiac output decreases, the body will undergo compensatory measures such as tachycardia, release of adrenaline, blood vessel constriction, and increased blood pressure. Inadequate cardiac output also results in hypoperfusion to vital organs that require oxygen (Kulkarni et al., 2019). This can lead to multiple organ failure which affects the brain, kidneys, liver, and other systems.

In cardiogenic shock, changes in vascular tone and the loss of contractile tissue results in decreased cardiac output and systemic hypoperfusion (Kulkarni et al., 2019). Blood volume is not typically the primary issue in cardiogenic shock, but decreased cardiac output can lead to congestion in the lungs and other tissues. The central issue in cardiogenic shock is poor cardiac function. The heart’s inability to pump effectively reduces cardiac output and leads to systemic hypoperfusion (Kulkarni et al., 2019). As with other forms of shock, poor oxygen delivery to tissues results in anaerobic metabolism, lactic acidosis, and cellular dysfunction. 

2- Nasim Shahangian

Discuss one condition that increases the risk of vitamin deficiencies.

Vitamins’ involvement in oxidative, inflammatory, immune, genetic, and epigenetic regulation mechanisms makes them essential for cellular homeostasis (Gana et al., 2021). Therefore, vitamin deficiencies can lead to abnormal functioning of the body. Various factors can lead to vitamin deficiency. However, celiac disease, a medical condition, increases its risk. Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine. It results from the ingestion of dietary gluten products in susceptible people. In people diagnosed with celiac disease, malabsorption of many nutrients, including iron, vitamin D, vitamin B12, and zinc, is reported (Parzanese et al., 2017).

How can healthcare professionals identify at-risk patients and develop appropriate intervention strategies to prevent or address these deficiencies?

The first step in identifying at-risk patients is through screening. Blood tests, such as tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA), can screen for celiac disease. Assessment of symptoms for celiac disease should follow. Healthcare professionals should be alert for potential symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia, fatigue, and skin rashes. Additionally, a nutritional assessment that includes blood levels of various vitamins and minerals should follow, as deficiencies are common in individuals with untreated celiac disease. Intervention strategies for this condition involve dietary counseling in collaboration with dieticians, where patients are advised to avoid gluten-containing foods. Additionally, vitamin and mineral supplements should be given to address the deficiencies (Verma, 2021). Regular monitoring to ensure adherence to a gluten-free diet and to assess the nutritional status of patients should be done.

3- McKenzie Rosendale

A deficiency that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease is vitamin D. Inflammatory bowel disease is defined as “chronic, disability precipitating inflammation and ulceration throughout the gastrointestinal tract” (Fletcher et al., 2019). There are two different types of inflammatory bowel disease: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. With these two conditions, the dietary malabsorption can contribute to the vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D assists with gut mucosal immunity and innate immune barrier function. It also helps with calcium metabolism and maintenance of bone health (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021, pg. 622).  The symptoms of vitamin D deficiency are bone pain, hair loss, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, and fatigue. One way a healthcare professional can identity at risk patients by looking at their medical conditions and ordering labs to assess their vitamin levels. If the lab values are low, then the healthcare professional can include a nutritionist to help with including foods that are high in a specific vitamin to one’s diet or prescribing vitamin supplements to improve the deficiency. It is recommended that a person who is 4 years old or older should have a daily intake of 400 IU of vitamin D (Fletcher et al., 2019). Foods that are high in vitamin D are fish, liver, red meat, egg yolks, and fortified foods (Fletcher et al., 2019). Vitamin D is important for the human body because it helps with gastrointestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory immune response. Therefore, it is important to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiencies for those who have inflammatory bowel disease to prevent further problems.

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